Autor Thema: 60Fe-Analysen an Meteoriten und die Supernova-Theorie  (Gelesen 934 mal)

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60Fe-Analysen an Meteoriten und die Supernova-Theorie
« am: Dezember 17, 2012, 19:52:56 Nachmittag »
60Fe-Analysen an Meteoriten und die Supernova-Theorie

Neuere und genauere Meteoritenanalysen der Eisen-60-Isotope im frühen Sonnensystem lassen
Zweifel an der etablierten Vermutung aufkommen, dass eine Supernova die Gaswolke zusammengedrückt hat, aus der
das Sonnensystem entstand.

Abundance, distribution, and origin of 60Fe in the solar protoplanetary disk
Haolan Tang, Nicolas Dauphas


Meteorites contain relict decay products of short-lived radionuclides that were present in the protoplanetary disk when asteroids and planets formed. Several studies reported a high abundance of 60Fe (t1/2=2.62+/-0.04 Myr) in chondrites (60Fe/56Fe~6*10-7), suggesting that planetary materials incorporated fresh products of stellar nucleosynthesis ejected by one or several massive stars that exploded in the vicinity of the newborn Sun. We measured 58Fe/54Fe and 60Ni/58Ni isotope ratios in whole rocks and constituents of differentiated achondrites (ureilites, aubrites, HEDs, and angrites), unequilibrated ordinary chondrites Semarkona (LL3.0) and NWA 5717 (ungrouped petrologic type 3.05), metal-rich carbonaceous chondrite Gujba (CBa), and several other meteorites (CV, EL H, LL chondrites; IIIAB, IVA, IVB iron meteorites). We derive from these measurements a much lower initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio of (11.5+/-2.6)*10-9 and conclude that 60Fe was homogeneously distributed among planetary bodies. This low ratio is consistent with derivation of 60Fe from galactic background (60Fe/56Fe=2.8*10-7 in the interstellar medium from gamma-ray observations) and can be reconciled with high 26Al/27Al=5*10-5 in chondrites if solar material was contaminated through winds by outer layers of one or several massive stars (e.g., a Wolf-Rayet star) rich in 26Al and poor in 60Fe. We present the first chronological application of the 60Fe-60Ni decay system to establish the time of core formation on Vesta at 3.7 (+2.5/-1.7) Myr after condensation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs).

If this is true, Dauphas said, there is then "no need to invoke any nearby star to make iron 60." However, it is more difficult to account for the high abundance of aluminum 26, which implies the presence of a nearby star.

Instead of explaining this abundance by supernova, Tang and Dauphas propose that a massive star (perhaps more than 20 times the mass of the sun) sheds its gaseous outer layers through winds, spreading aluminum 26 and contaminating the material that would eventually form the solar system, while iron 60 remained locked inside the massive star's interior. If the solar system formed from this material, this alternate scenario would account for the abundances of both isotopes.


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